Dessalines Three ideals

(taken from http://​www​.mar​guerite​lau​rent​.com/​p​r​e​s​s​c​l​i​p​s​/​d​e​s​s​a​l​i​n​e​s​.​h​t​m​l​#​3

1. Dessalines ideal #1 –Black is the color of lib­erty, self-​defense is a human right — Live free or die.

All Haitians, — Ayisyen yo — “shall hence for­ward be known only by the generic appel­la­tion of Blacks.” (See, Dessalines’ 1805 Constitution).

Thus, in Dessalines’ Haiti, “Black,” is essen­tially denied as a bio­log­i­cal imper­a­tive and acknowl­edged as an African indige­nous cul­ture. Its bound­aries are focal­ized and expanded, old lines lim­it­ing ancient Alke­bu­lan (ancient Africa) are rede­fined. We all now know that race is purely a social con­struct with no sci­en­tific grounds. The truth is there is just one race, the human race and it began with African peo­ple who, in fact have a dis­tinct culture(s) from the Euro­peans. But back at its cre­ation, the coun­try of Haiti was based on this truth. (See also, Blacks were the orig­i­nal peo­ples on the planet, includ­ing the Amer­i­cas).

In Haiti, Black is de-​racialized in terms of skin color giv­ing the per­son supe­rior sub­stance but racial­ized as a peo­ple bound together because of their shared expe­ri­ence, dis­tinct moral con­science vis-​a-​vis those they defeated, unique Kreyòl lan­guage and African-​based cul­ture. This para­dox is the amaz­ing genius of Dessalines’ Haiti. He simul­ta­ne­ously empow­ered the Black “race” to both be proud of self and their lin­eage under the socia-​politically con­structed race par­a­digm and to tran­scend it.

First, Haiti is racial­ized because in cre­at­ing Haiti in com­bat against the US/​Euro enslave­ment tribes, Jean Jacques Dessalines empow­ered the Black “race” to carry the man­tle of the African strug­gle for jus­tice against racism, colo­nial­ism, forced assim­i­la­tion, eco­nomic tyranny and impe­ri­al­ism. Sec­ond, Haiti is de-​racialized because by nam­ing and defin­ing, in Haiti’s first Con­sti­tu­tion, the white set­tlers who fought on the side of the lib­erty, award­ing them the appel­la­tion “Black,” Dessalines showed his pro­found under­stand­ing that human nature goes deeper than skin color. Thus, he urged unity of human­ity, co-​existence, self-​determination, work­ing for con­sen­sus towards a com­mon uni­ver­sal pur­pose, empow­er­ing both “Black” peo­ple and “white” peo­ple to not wear their iden­ti­ties on their skins, but to tran­scend it. Cre­ate more dig­nity for tom­morow, for all peo­ple in the Seven Seas we share, and the invis­i­ble one­ness we bow to, in a thou­sand ways.

For, Dessalines defined those who fought for the abol­ish­ment of chat­tel slav­ery in Haiti and against colo­nial­ism, includ­ing the few whites that did fight on the side of the Africans, as “Blacks.” To study Dessalines’ life, achieve­ments and first Con­sti­tu­tion is to come to know that a “Black” is a per­son (no mat­ter his/​her skin color, Euro­pean or African) who stands for free­dom, human dig­nity and against slav­ery, colo­nial­ism and imperialism.

No ideal in this mod­ern world so directly con­fronts and con­quers the bio­log­i­cal fatal­ism of white priv­i­lege. Dessalines’ 1805 Con­sti­tu­tion stated that all Haitians ” shall hence for­ward be known only by the generic appel­la­tion of Blacks.” And Blacks included even the Pol­ish and Ger­mans who fought with the African war­riors on the side of lib­erty and equal­ity, not slav­ery, plun­der and profit. Black peo­ple in Dessalines’ Haiti are lovers-​of-​liberty who are will­ing to live free or die. To reit­er­ate, there is no mod­ern phi­los­o­phy or ideal that has so directly pro­vided the world with an ALTER­NA­TIVE to the man­u­fac­tured race game based on skin color as this Dessalines ideal.

Even after three hun­dred years of unremit­ting bru­tal­ity from the white set­tlers, the great Dessalines could see beyond the scars and pain grooves of the mas­ters’ lash engraved on his own back and rec­og­nized cer­tain white set­tlers had become Ayisyen in Haiti, award­ing them the appel­la­tion “Black” because they fought on the side of lib­erty, prov­ing skin color does not evi­dence con­tent of char­ac­ter.

Haiti is a nation of Blacks, of lovers-​of-​liberty. That is the ideal Dessalines estab­lished at the cre­ation of the nation of Haiti.

The pri­mary dif­fer­ence between the Hait­ian (Ayisyen) cul­ture that came to be in Haiti and the Euro­pean cul­ture it dis­placed is that Hait­ian cul­ture does not accept bour­geois free­dom as a moral way of life, of peace­ful co-​existence, or of extend­ing the Hait­ian self into the world. The Euro­peans the Haitians defeated to become a nation extend Bour­geoisie Free­dom as the high­est form of human inter­ac­tion and can screen out of con­science and con­scious­ness all the geno­cide, slav­ery and tyranny they have imposed or acted out and dance, at the ball, so-​to-​speak while sneak­ing off to rape an enslaved African woman in the shack off the plan­ta­tion and then rejoin the party in the salon, like Thomas Jef­fer­son or the Eng­lish and French “enlight­en­ment” thinkers, to declare their civil­ity above all the “races” and the equal­ity of all white men who own property.

Bour­geoisie Free­dom is when lib­erty, fra­ter­nity and democ­racy exist in the same space along­side slav­ery, geno­cide, exploita­tion, intol­er­ance and tyranny — notably Black enslave­ment, exploita­tion and dis­en­fran­chise­ment in the Amer­i­cas. This is what Ezili’s HLLN calls Bour­geoisie Free­dom. And, from Bwa Kay­i­man to now, Haitians have rejected this struc­ture of human inter­ac­tion, gov­er­nance and communication.

“(I)t can never be too strongly stated that except for Haiti all the present African nation­al­i­ties are the results of colo­nial strate­gies. Haiti is not. At Bwa Kay­i­man the amal­ga­mated African tribes, allegedly 21 dif­fer­ent African nations gath­ered together, named them­selves — Ayisyen — and that union has NEVER wavered. It lifted up respect for the Taino-​Ayisyen, respect for the African-​Ayisyen, for African power, ancient African-​Ginen knowl­edge requir­ing the blood, flesh, spirit, thoughts and breath of the African Ances­tors from the begin­ning of time, depi lan Ginen. Man­man Ayiti is not the prod­uct of cap­i­tal­ism. Haitians are the descen­dant of a people-​centered “race,” as opposed to a profit-​centered “race,” who are mys­ti­cally evolved and live in har­mony with nature and the forces of nature. Both the Taino-​Ayisyen and the African-​Ayisyen wor­shiped nature, and have always had the respect for nature that is only now referred to as liv­ing green.” (The Hait­ian union that’s never wavered)

Haiti is the only coun­try that denies this “cul­ture” at its found­ing, the first mod­ern West­ern nation that claimed uni­ver­sal, not bour­geois free­dom, as its start­ing point and did not define free­dom as the task of evict­ing the Euro­pean mas­ters in order to live in his old house, his old life! Haitians burned down the Euro­pean edi­fices and on the ashes cre­ated their own reflec­tion, for Henri Christophe and Jean Jacques Dessalines under­stood the old enslavers’ house con­tained his spirit, his splin­tered bour­geoisie soul, and a cul­ture and struc­ture of human inter­ac­tion that was not their own or the par­a­digm they wanted to go for­ward into the future with. In the enslaver’s house, their spirit live — take that at all lev­els, the phys­i­cal, meta­phys­i­cal, psy­cho­log­i­cal, polit­i­cal, social, eco­nomic, et al.. New par­a­digms, for the Hait­ian, mean reclaim­ing their own nar­ra­tive, build­ing from that ground zero, and self-​reliance. Dessalines’ def­i­n­i­tion of “Black” as lovers-​of-​liberty began that new paradigm.

For over 207-​years now, the US/​Euros (Mundele), not see­ing them­selves in Haiti, demean, vil­ify and con­stantly destroy Haiti (spon­sor­ing 33-​coup d’etats) for what Haiti stands for and strug­gles to bring to appli­ca­tion, never see­ing Haiti’s indige­nous value and Black cul­ture as valid, always attempt­ing, through their mulatto sons/​Black freed­men col­lab­o­ra­tors (Bafyòti), reli­gious edu­ca­tion, end­less debt and all forms of neo­colo­nial­ism (Ndòki) , to re-​enslave, re-​colonize Haiti, ren­der the peo­ple only as com­modi­ties for the use of liq­ui­dat­ing cap­i­tal through work so to erect their own US/​Euro edi­fices of con­sumerism, mate­ri­al­ism and “progress” (loot, plun­der and pil­lage through the masks of lib­er­al­iza­tion, free mar­kets, democ­racy, end­less debt, human­i­tar­ian impe­ri­al­ism, war on drugs or ter­ror­ism)- which Hait­ian con­sis­tently see straight through and reject. (I pay this price for you.)

Not much has changed from the time the US/​Euros’ plun­dered and enslaved to save OUR soul from eter­nal damna­tion! But, to be ren­dered maids, but­lers, sex ves­sels and com­modi­ties in their own coun­try for the touris­tic plea­sures of the Euro/​US, its mid­dle­men and global elites, is not the rea­son Blacks in Haiti cre­ated the nation of Ayiti. For instance, when Napoleon sent 50,000 sol­diers to re-​enslave Haiti, Gen­eral Henry Christophe taught that free­dom meant the will­ing­ness to burn down his own pala­tial house down first, so that Haiti’s adver­saries wouldn’t use this mate­r­ial asset against Haitians. He said to the troops” on these ashes we will rebuilt Haiti.”

Christophe exhib­ited crit­i­cal knowl­edge of the US/Euro’s cul­tural taste for pil­lage, plun­der, col­o­niz­ing, own­ing every­thing and hoarding-​it-​all as well as also rec­og­niz­ing that a love of any­thing above uni­ver­sal lib­erty and free­dom, can and will be used to re-​enslave you. All the plan­ta­tions were burned to the ground, for the Hait­ian war­riors’ rec­og­nized that in the US/​Euros’ house, in the edi­fices of his power lies his splin­tered, wicked and gar­ish soul — that venal bour­geois soul that allows for com­part­men­tal­iza­tion, for a men­tal dis­so­ci­a­tion, dis­so­nance or dis­place­ment in a profit-​based soci­ety that allows for the exis­tence of tyranny in the same space as unlim­ited indi­vid­ual free­dom for the priv­i­leged few. That was not the equi­table soci­ety, Haiti’s found­ing father, Jean Jacques Dessalines, wanted estab­lished in Haiti.

Dessalines advanced what is almost a utopia com­pared to the rank greed, vio­lence and con­sumerism of West­ern Euro/​US bar­bar­ity– Haiti’s African, kon­bit cul­ture is inher­ently opposed to Bour­geoisie Free­dom — that is where tyranny, exclu­sion, slav­ery co-​exist in the same space as unlim­ited free­dom, wealth, ease, lux­ury, immense indi­vid­ual rights and order. Only the men­tally col­o­nized Hait­ian or reli­giously (Pèpè) edu­cated Hait­ian may eas­ily screen out of con­scious­ness the exclu­sion of the masses and find this log­i­cal and pos­si­ble in a West­ern “New World” pur­port­edly based on logic and sci­ence. Indeed, the cur­rent world powers/​aggressor nations accept the prod­ucts of sci­ence but reject sci­en­tific logic, meth­ods, the laws of physics and chem­istry, et al… Instead, they choose racial (bio­log­i­cal fatal­ism), sex­ual and reli­gious chau­vin­ism, fear, ter­ri­to­ri­al­ity, aggres­sion, a profit-​over-​people mon­e­tary sys­tem, a con­scious­ness based on scarcity and ide­ol­ogy that sep­a­rates rather than unit­ing the human species.

This Dessalines phi­los­o­phy — Black means lov­ing lib­erty and free­dom above all other pur­suits (of “hap­pi­nesses”) — directly and humanely defeats the socially man­u­fac­tured white/​black “race” dia­logue of the US/​Euro pow­ers that Dessalines and his peo­ples in Haiti con­fronted and is one of the pri­mary rea­son why the spread of Haiti’s rev­o­lu­tion, was, and still is, so feared by the US/​Euro slave own­ers, col­o­niz­ers and their descen­dants who depend on “white” as code to des­ig­nate, in con­trast to “Black,” what’s “good,” “civ­i­lized” or “supe­rior” in order to unify the Euro­pean tribes and divide and con­quer peo­ples of color world­wide. Dessalines did not only defeat Euro­pean slav­ery and colo­nial­ism in one fell swoop in phys­i­cal com­bat with the great­est Euro­pean armies of the time, but he also ide­o­log­i­cally dec­i­mated the basis for white priv­i­lege, by des­ig­nat­ing “Ayisyen” as “Blacks” not based on skin color, but as all per­sons who took arms or pos­i­tive action against tyranny, oppres­sion, slav­ery.

Also, in defin­ing Blacks as “Ayisyen” this way, Dessalines sys­tem­at­i­cally cod­i­fied a cus­tom­ary prac­tice or belief held and com­monly extended in daily life by the amal­ga­mated Africans who then formed Haiti’s enslaved masses and had gath­ered together as a fam­ily against colo­nial­ism and slav­ery. These Haitians always saw “whites” and “blacks” who were despots or tyrants as
strangers, the for­eign­ers, the colonists, the impe­ri­al­ists, or, col­lec­tively, as white(s) — “blan” or “blan-​yo.” And def­i­nitely not good and accept­able “fam­ily” mem­bers of the com­mu­nity, no mat­ter the person’s actual skin color. Dessalines sim­ply cod­i­fied this African con­cept of uni­ver­sal fra­ter­nity and broth­er­hood that is based on moral action in Haiti’s found­ing Con­sti­tu­tion. To Haitians, “Black” is fam­ily. Black is Ayisyen. But “blacks” who are tyran­ni­cal or act as agents for the white set­tlers’ oppres­sion are not Ayisyen, or fam­ily, but “white” — blan. When Dessalines des­ig­nated Blacks as the appel­la­tion for Haiti’s lib­er­a­tors, no mat­ter the per­sons skin color, the masses who freed them­selves from all the blan, or blan-​yo, under­stood this well, and still do.

Com­bin­ing Dessalines’ Law
with Dessalines’ Three Ideals, the Hait­ian poet, Feliks Moriso Lewa, once wrote, in his famous poem Blan Man­nan that “Dessalines who is my his­tory teacher tells me the only good white is the white that shoots the bad white.”

Dessalines’ Zero Tol­er­ance for despots was expressed thus: “We will det­o­nate and burn Haiti down and all rather die before we are returned to slav­ery and colo­nial­ism.” In Kreyol — Desalin di: “Depi ter­itwa nou an menase, koupe tèt, boule kay” paske Ayisyen pap retounen lan esklavaj.” (See also, The Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Poten­tial of Haiti, its creeds, val­ues and strug­gle).

Haiti found­ing father, Jean Jacques Dessalines’ fore­most legacy to Haitians is the dic­tum “name your­self,” “wit­ness to your­self, to your own human­ity” — that is, self-​determination, self-​love.

And, along with self-​determination, his life and tri­umphs taught Haitians to trea­sure self-​defense, to
live free or die. That is, if rev­o­lu­tion­ary vio­lence is the only solu­tion left (as was the case when Tou­s­saint Louverture’s diplo­matic strate­gies had failed to dis­suade the cruel exist­ing order) than a scorch earth, live free or die - koupe tèt, boule kay - REV­O­LU­TION, is always prefer­able than to rec­on­cile with injus­tice.

The Hait­ian Union —
Linyon fè la fòs — and call to action that began the Hait­ian rev­o­lu­tion wasn’t so that the assets of the coun­try would be given back to the sons of France or to the white set­tlers’ rul­ing feu­dal lords/​oligarchs, leav­ing the sons and daugh­ters of Africa with noth­ing. That union, that call and Haiti’s rev­o­lu­tion­ary peo­ples’ ini­tial com­mit­ment to uni­ver­sal free­dom and eco­nomic democ­racy, made at Bwa Kay­i­man and the Lovers-​of-​Liberty it named and ele­vated, has never wavered. (See, Haiti’s Rul­ing Oli­garchy).

2. Dessalines ideal #2 — What’s in a name?

is the Taino name for the Island freed by Jean Jacques Dessalines’ people.

The word Ayi in the Fon African lan­guage means “earth.” The word Ayiti is both Amerindian and African and means old sacred high­land or sacred home­land. Besides “Ayiti”, the Taino Ayisyen also referred to the island as Kiskeya (“mother of the earth”) and Bohio (“home”). But Ayiti was the more widely used name, mean­ing an ancient and sacred soil/​land/​earth, a sacred high­land or hal­lowed ground. The amal­ga­mated African tribes became “Ayisyen” in Ayiti, thereby hon­or­ing Africa’s strengths and the spirit of the fallen Taino Ayisyen.

When it came to nam­ing the island the African war­riors had freed from the white set­tlers’ tyranny after 300-​years of bru­tal and bloody enslave­ment, it took a supremely cen­tered man to eschew colo­nial names and a great human­ist to remem­ber the orig­i­nal inhab­i­tants, the Taino Hait­ian (or Taino Ayisyen), descen­dants of the Arawaks, and an Arawakan-​speaking peo­ple who had been bru­tally dec­i­mated by the white set­tlers. Haiti’s found­ing father, Jean Jacques Dessalines is that great genius who would name the coun­try that defeated Euro­pean enslave­ment, forced assim­i­la­tion, direct colo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism and the the­ory of white supe­ri­or­ity.

I Have Avenged Amer­ica,” delared Jean Jacques Dessalines.

The name hon­ors the spirit, calls forth the force of the orig­i­nal inhab­i­tants of Haiti and the Taino Ayisyen who suf­fered almost com­plete geno­cide at the hands of the white set­tlers.

So, though the orig­i­nal Taino Ayisyen inhab­i­tants are no more, the coun­try they called “Ayiti” still lives. Still exists through the African-​Haitian, who defeated the slaugh­ter­ers of the orig­i­nal Taino-​Haitian. Hait­ian Taino blood­lines and cul­ture live in African Ayisyen blood­lines in Haiti and in Haiti’s Vodun cul­ture of ances­tral rev­er­ence, rev­er­ence for nature, bal­ance, har­mony with envi­ron­ment and of the inter­con­nect­ed­ness of all life, which belief sys­tem the Taino Haitians shared in com­mon with the forcibly imported Africans. Through the liv­ing tri­umphs of these Africans, who re-​named them­selves in the Taino lan­guage, the Taino did not die out.

The amal­ga­mated African tribes who, at Bwa Kay­i­man, became ONE PEO­PLE, one “nation” with one Kreyòl tongue and mis­sion, rec­og­nized, on sev­eral lev­els, the land called Ayiti by the Taino. First, because the word Ayi in the Fon African lan­guage meant “earth.” Ayiti meant some­thing that res­onated with Black ori­gin and mean­ing (Ayiti, Ayizan, Ayida Wedo, Ayi­bobo, Ayi­bo­hio!) to the amal­ga­mated African tribes who became Ayisyen in Ayiti. And two, as Blacks are the orig­i­nal peo­ples on this EARTH or planet, they are also the world’s abo­rig­i­nal or autochthon peoples.

So, it is a ques­tion of which African or suc­ces­sion of African descen­dants and cul­tures pop­u­lat­ing the Amer­i­cas, hav­ing left African 80 to 100thousand years ago, gave the name Ayiti to the island first. The ancient Africans who lived on the old island of Haiti — the old­est land mass in the Amer­i­cas, over 76 to 90million years old — or, the Hait­ian Taino who came to be liv­ing on “mother of the earth/​Kiskeya”, on “home/​Bohio”, on “Ayi(ti)/old sacred earth/​sacred home­land” in the time of Colum­bus? (See, Blacks were the orig­i­nal peo­ples in the Amer­i­cas; –Video: WAY Before Colum­bus or the Egypt Pyra­mids Washitaw 1 of 4 ; Video — Ivan Van Ser­tima: They Came Before Colum­bus, A His­tory of the African-​Olmecs: Black Civ­i­liza­tions of Amer­ica from Pre­his­toric Times to the Present Era by Paul Alfred Bar­ton,, Haiti a bil­lion years, Bwa Kay­i­man, 2008: Reclaim­ing the Hait­ian People’s Vodun Nar­ra­tive at Bwa Kay­i­man; The Unity That’s Never Wavered; Vodun Kon­bit and Vodun Lakou and, Haiti’s First Dec­la­ra­tion of Inde­pen­dence.)

It is most sig­nif­i­cant that, post-​independence, gen­er­a­tions upon gen­er­a­tions of African Haitians in Haiti have pos­ses­sively and fondly referred to Haiti as Haiti Toma!, mean­ing this old land is our land! This home­land — Bohio/​home — is
ours! These rooted African Haitians say Ayiti means “this sacred high­land, this ancient sacred trust is our/​my home or land.”

This, is the untold counter-​colonial nar­ra­tive of Ayiti/​AyiBohio and how Ances­tral Black/​Africa/​Alkebulan is vis­cer­ally entwined, on many lev­els, in today’s African Ayiti. Nonethe­less, to name the coun­try “Ayiti” simul­ta­ne­ously hon­ors the spirit, the mem­ory of the indige­nous Hait­ian Taino/​Arawak who lived on the land imme­di­ately before the white set­tlers’ arrived. The pro­found non-​Eurocentric roots, his­tory, humane­ness, beauty, truth and val­ues and cul­tural pat­ri­mony extended by the name “Ayiti” unnerves the Euro/​US impe­ri­al­ists. Hence, in 1930, dur­ing the US occu­pa­tion of Haiti, the United States Geo­graphic Board (U.S.G.B.) uni­lat­er­ally renamed the Island of Haiti back to the Span­ish colonizer’s appel­la­tion of “His­pan­iola” — Lit­tle Spain! Sup­pos­edly this was “to avoid con­fu­sion between the name of the Repub­lic of Haiti and that of the entire island.” (See, En Mem­oires Des Arawaks et Tainos D’Haiti and, “Rename the Island: Quisqueya, not His­pan­iola ‘Quisqueya’ hon­ors Taino cul­ture whereas ‘His­pan­iola’ recalls the Amerindian geno­cide” By Odette Roy Fom­brun and The Hait­ian Arawak Move­ment).

The US had no right what­so­ever to abridge Haiti’s rev­o­lu­tion in this man­ner. Of course, Haitians in Haiti and Haiti’s text­books still refer to the island by its proper name -“the Island of Haiti.” That, of course, doesn’t stop the offense most knowl­edge­able Haitians feel every instance the mass media refers to the Island of Haiti as “His­pan­iola” in their report­ings and par­tic­u­larly on TV dur­ing the hur­ri­cane sea­son. For us at HLLN, the Island will always be the Island of Haiti or Ayiti. But, to push back Dessalines’ rev­o­lu­tion is the rea­son for all the impe­ri­al­ist inter­ven­tions in Haiti since Haiti’s independence.

Once Ezili’s HLLN learned how the Island was renamed “His­pan­iola” by the US, once given the facts of the mat­ter, there is no choice but to remem­ber how Dessalines wisely taught us to say NO to all despots and tyrants. The name of the island can­not arbi­trar­ily just be renounced by the US!
Se pa kado blan yo te fè nou. Se san zan­sèt nou yo ki te koule. We call the Island by its name — Ayiti!

For, this seri­ous error and assas­si­na­tion of the Island of Haiti’s Amerindian and African past can­not be car­ried for­ward by Haitians and must be con­sis­tently and relent­lessly renounced.

HLLN’s To-​Tell-​The-​Truth-​About-​Haiti Forums teach that, to say “Hait­ian” – Ayisyen – is a pro­foundly impor­tant utter­ance. For to say “Hait­ian” — Ayisyen – is to immor­tal­ize, raise up the Ayi souls of Africa and the Ayiti souls of the Amerindi­ans destroyed through the Span­ish col­o­niz­ers geno­cide in Haiti. To rename the Island back to “lit­tle Spain” or to vil­ify a Hait­ian African or Hait­ian Taino because of his/​her rev­o­lu­tion­ary legacy and desire for inde­pen­dence, is to stand against all that Haiti is. It is to stand against the coura­geous Amerindian spirit Hait­ian Africans ani­mate with each breath of exis­tence today. It is to under­mine, not only the for­mer own­ers of the land called Ayiti, but also the amal­ga­mated African tribes and the few Euro­pean free­dom lovers who were the first to for­mally put lib­erty into appli­ca­tion since the com­ing of Colum­bus to the Amer­i­cas.

(See also,
En Mem­oires Des Arawaks et Tainos D’Haiti, Defamed! — In mem­ory of the Arawaks and Tainos of Haiti, the Island’s name is Haiti, not ‘His­pan­iola’ as the news­cast­ers’ insist every time they report on trop­i­cal storms and in the hur­ri­cane sea­sons. Also, in term of dis­eases on the Island of Ayiti, Colum­bus’ sailors brought syphilis to the Island and dec­i­mated the Amerindi­ans pop­u­la­tion, not the con­verse…The same for the HIV/​AIDS of these mod­ern times, dev­as­tat­ing Haiti and Africa orig­i­nat­ing from the U.S./Euro trav­el­ers and their sci­en­tists’ lab­o­ra­to­ries and injected into chimps in Zaïre, now renamed the Congo.

See also: “.…Another com­mon prac­tice among Euro­pean explor­ers was to give “small­pox blan­kets” to the Indi­ans. Since small­pox was unknown on this con­ti­nent prior to the arrival of the Euro­peans, Native Amer­i­cans did not have any nat­ural immu­nity to the dis­ease so small­pox would effec­tively wipe out entire vil­lages with very lit­tle effort required by the Europeans…The Wampanoag lost 70 per­cent of their pop­u­la­tion to the epi­demic and the Mass­a­chu­setts lost 90 per­cent. Most of the Wampanoag had died from the small­pox epi­demic so when the Pil­grims arrived they found well-​cleared fields which they claimed for their own. A Puri­tan colonist, quoted by Har­vard University’s Perry Miller, praised the plague that had wiped out the Indi­ans for it was “the won­der­ful prepa­ra­tion of the Lord Jesus Christ, by his prov­i­dence for his people’s abode in the West­ern world.” His­to­ri­ans have since spec­u­lated end­lessly on why the woods in the region resem­bled a park to the dis­em­bark­ing Pil­grims in 1620. The rea­son should have been obvi­ous: hun­dreds, if not thou­sands, of peo­ple had lived there just five years before. In less than three gen­er­a­tions the set­tlers would turn all of New Eng­land into a char­nel house for Native Amer­i­cans, and fire the eco­nomic engines of slav­ery through­out English-​speaking Amer­ica. Ply­mouth Rock is the place where the night­mare truly began…” (
The Black Com­men­ta­tor, The His­tory of Thanks­giv­ing) — (See also: Vac­ci­nate Haiti! and Defamed! –Page 1, - Page 2, Pg. 3, Pg. 4, Pg. 5 and, Pg. 6 ; La Con­spir­a­tion Du Silence:Geno­cide in Haiti by mass vac­ci­na­tion while Haiti is occu­pied by Dessalines’ ene­mies and other such white sav­ior missionaries/​mer­ce­nar­ies…).

Black are the orig­i­nal peo­ples on planet earth, includ­ing the Amer­i­cas
and shared core cul­tural, social and reli­gious val­ues with the enslaved Blacks the Euro/​US brought, in chains, to the Americas.

Within the West­ern Hemi­sphere, Haiti is a focal point of an African-​Indian cul­tural, Vodun blood fusion.

The world is just start­ing to learn that the Africans were the orig­i­nal peo­ples of the Amer­i­cas. A “large per­cent­age of the Abo­rig­i­nal First Peo­ple of the Amer­i­cas were Eth­nic Black Indi­ans affected by for­eign invasion…Indian removal, as well as impacted by the Trans-​Atlantic Slave Trade and the Black Holo­caust.” (See,
Black Indi­ans United Legal Defense Fund — Thanks­giv­ing Day Mes­sage). More par­tic­u­larly, accord­ing to Paul Bar­ton, “the indige­nous Blacks to the Amer­i­cas who arrived in the Amer­i­cas ear­lier than 100,000 years before Christ” have been oblit­er­ated from Euro/​US his­tory books.

This explains why it is that all “Free Blacks” who were found in remote loca­tions in the Amer­i­cas not habited by white set­tlers, are said to have been run-​away enslaved Africans, brought to the Amer­i­cas in chains by the white set­tlers, who inter-​married with the “Native Indi­ans”. Does this also explain why Jean Jacques Dessalines chose to re-​establish the “Indian” — per­haps the Black autochthons’ name — “Ayiti,” to the new African nation he had freed and founded? Was Dessalines’ deny­ing the white settler’s re-​writting of world his­tory and hon­or­ing the his­tory of human­ity, hon­or­ing the pres­ence of Black peo­ple as the world’s indige­nous peo­ples, includ­ing to the Amer­i­cas before the arrival of the Mon­goloid Indian pop­u­la­tion to the Americas?

Is that also another rea­son, know­ing that Blacks were the orig­i­nal trustees of this old and sacred land; were orig­i­nal to the Amer­i­cas before all the invaders, includ­ing the Siberian/​Asian Native Amer­i­cans, that reach­ing back for Black, Jean Jacques Dessalines decreed in Haiti’s first Con­sti­tu­tion that “all cit­i­zens in Haiti shall be known by the appel­la­tion “Black?” ( See, Some of the old­est remains found so far in the Amer­i­cas; Black Indi­ans — An HLLN appeal for equity and jus­tice, Black Indi­ans United Legal Defense Fund — Thanks­giv­ing Day Mes­sage; A mes­sage from the Choctaw– Black Indi­ans, orig­i­nal indige­nous peo­ples of the Amer­i­cas on July 4, 2008 (Who Are We?); Video: WAY Before Colum­bus or the Egypt Pyra­mids Washitaw 1 of 4 and The 2008 His­toric Mis­sion to Enid, Okla­homa to Gather with the Black Indi­ans (Flyer) and, A His­tory of the African-​Olmecs: Black Civ­i­liza­tions of Amer­ica from Pre­his­toric Times to the Present Era by Paul Alfred Bar­ton,, Haiti a bil­lion years, and Bwa Kay­i­man, 2008: Reclaim­ing the Hait­ian People’s Vodun Nar­ra­tive at Bwa Kay­i­man ; Haiti Epis­te­mol­ogy).

Did the indige­nous Hait­ian army of Jean Jacques Dessalines’ era under­stand the term “Black” in the “autochthones” man­ner – that is, that the Blacks, those descen­dants of ancient Alke­bu­lan who are today socially and polit­i­cally labeled and iden­ti­fied as “Africans” where liv­ing in the Amer­i­cas since time immemo­r­ial; where there in the Amer­i­cas eons ago, as the orig­i­nal peo­ples on earth, before the one land­mass on the earth was bro­ken dur­ing the ice age and sep­a­rated into con­ti­nents?

From what schools teaches and from the images we see on TV, it appears the Native Amer­i­cans are clearly of Asian/​mongoloid descent and seem to have col­o­nized the entire Amer­i­can con­ti­nent from one end to the other as well as the Caribbean islands.

But the hard proof reveals the old­est remains found in the Amer­i­cas is African and dates back at least 3,000 years ear­lier than the Asian-​like Native Amer­i­can remains found. Still, it may be impos­si­ble to know more for quite some­time because the Native Amer­i­cans under­stand­ably don’t want to lose the legal and social stand­ings they enjoy over the Black Indi­ans within their nations and the Black autochthones else­where in the Amer­i­cas. Offi­cial­dom is vested in this divide and con­quer and uphold­ing on to its arcane ideas. Non-​white cul­tures (African-​Americans, Autochthons, Caribbean­ers, Lati­nos, Asians and Native Amer­i­cans) in the Amer­i­cas still haven’t matured into the cogent idea that they don’t need to assim­i­late into each other to have a suc­cess­ful polit­i­cal move­ment that serves all their inter­ests. So, this infor­ma­tion that Africans were “first” threat­ens not only the “great dis­cover” Amer­i­can nar­ra­tive but the non-​white eth­nic groups in the Amer­i­cas who take suc­cor from not being at the “very bot­tom” of the Amer­i­can “race”-strata. Not to men­tion that the hege­mony of white supremacy shall end the day all Blacks, African-​Americans, Autochthons, Caribbean­ers, Lati­nos, Asians and Native Amer­i­cans in the Amer­i­cas, unify to sys­tem­atize their same strug­gles against RACISM. For each have a his­toric, if not own­er­ship, stake to the Amer­i­cas, the planet. Each have a his­tory that is older than Euro­pean col­o­niza­tion.

Thus, white offi­cial­dom does not want to re-​write its — “Amer­i­can” nar­ra­tive, its black vs white (evil vs good) — his­tory. So, it cen­sors mass expo­sure of the sci­en­tific evi­dence reported and cur­rently avail­able in the pub­lic domain that goes against what the school text­books teach, while actively re-​burying — hin­der­ing, dis­cour­ag­ing research, fur­ther DNA and other more accu­rate re-​testing of — newly unearthed remains or pre­vi­ously found remains in the Amer­i­cas. (i.e.
The Penon Woman III; Luzia Woman; Spirit Cave Man and the 9,200-year-old Ken­newick Man). But does it mat­ter? Some say it does, if Africans are to take their right­ful place in his­tory. And, that it is quite within the realm of pos­si­bil­i­ties that the trav­el­ing Black war­riors and maroons who came to fight the white set­tlers with Dessalines in Jean Jacques Dessalines’ era under­stood that Blacks to the Amer­i­cas where not all imported slaves from Africa.

To sup­port this we note that, besides tak­ing on the Native Amer­i­can name “Ayiti,” there is a long tra­di­tion of Hait­ian part­ner­ship of rebel­lion and inter­mar­riage between Africans and the var­i­ous nations of Native Amer­i­can Indi­ans who where in Haiti, or, made their way from all over the Amer­i­cas to fight against the white set­tlers in Haiti.

To sup­port the idea that Black were the indige­nous peo­ples of the WORLD, includ­ing the Amer­i­cas, we look at the claims of the Black Washitaw Moors in the US who con­tend that Black peo­ple did not travel to the Amer­i­cas, they were in the Amer­i­cas WAY Before Colum­bus or the Egypt Pyra­mids when the world was ONE land­mass. Con­sider also another con­tention, as expressed by Paul Alfred Barton’s book, A His­tory of the African-​Olmecs and Black Civ­i­liza­tions of Amer­ica From Pre­his­toric Times to the Present Era, where we learn that:

“… humans orig­i­nated in Africa and migrated to other regions. Those who went to the cold north­ern lands adapted to the cold cli­mate… the very first humans to inhabit the Amer­i­cas and the entire world came out of Africa between 200,000 to 100,000 years ago. Accord­ing to The Glad­win The­sis (1947), Blacks were in the Amer­i­cas as early as 70,000 B.C. These first Blacks may have been the Aus­traloid type as well as diminu­tive Blacks such as the Pyg­mies, Agta, Bush­men and oth­ers.

It is unlikely that the pre­his­toric Blacks whose remains have been dis­cov­ered in the Amer­i­cas, evolved from Mon­goloids and devel­oped in situ in the Amer­i­cas, into Negritic racial types. This idea can be refuted due to the fact that if humans entered the Amer­i­cas between 30,000 years B.C. to 150,000 years B.C., they would have had to have been Negroid. Pre­his­toric Blacks were mov­ing world­wide. Con­se­quently, the pre­his­toric migrants to the Amer­i­cas dur­ing that period would have had to have been Negroid and Black. It seems more pos­si­ble that peo­ple who were Negritic changed into the Mon­goloid type in the Amer­i­cas in order to adapt to the cold cli­mate in the north. In fact, the Kong and San peo­ples of South­ern Africa, who live in cli­matic regions sim­i­lar to that of East Asia (the cold, windy, high veldt of South­ern Africa) pos­sess the so-​called “Mon­goloid” char­ac­ter­is­tics such as yellowish-​brown skin, short stature and the epi­can­tus eye fold. Yet, genet­i­cally and in most other aspects, they are typ­i­cal Negroids with fea­tures that can be found from the tip of South­ern Africa to North Africa among the var­i­ous Negritic peo­ples. These Negritic peo­ples are the among the ear­li­est exam­ples of the pre­his­toric Homo sapien types who once set­tled the entire world before the devel­op­ment of dis­tinct “races” in var­i­ous parts of the planet…”; Haiti a bil­lion years.

The Amal­ga­mated African tribes who were imported to Haiti through
slave ships and the Tainos/​Arawaks (most likely the his­tory lost is that “a large per­cent­age” of these “natives” were Black autochthonic Indi­ans or descen­dants of the Black autochthonic Indi­ans) shared core cul­tural, social and reli­gious val­ues and a his­tory of oppres­sion by the white set­tlers. (See also, Video: WAY Before Colum­bus or the Egypt Pyra­mids Washitaw 1 of 4, which con­tents Blacks were in the Amer­i­cas when the world was ONE land­mass).

(Lis­ten to Susan Saran­don talk about the part­ner­ship between the Africans and Native Amer­i­cans in Haiti and the Amer­i­cas. To hear Susan Saran­don piece, go to Haitiantrea­sures at
http://​www​.haitiantrea​sures​.com/​i​n​d​e​x​.​h​t​m ; the whole “Happy Birth­day Haiti” is at

”…upon their arrival in slave ships, the peo­ples of the Cen­tral African forests found they had much in com­mon with the Tainos that had sur­vived. Africans and Caribbean Indi­ans shared core reli­gious beliefs and a his­tory of oppres­sion by their Euro­pean conquerors….Escaped slaves fled to the moun­tains where they joined the indige­nous Indian tribes in a resis­tance move­ment. The African/​Indian cul­tural fusion lives on in Haiti in the blood­lines of many fam­i­lies.”
http://​www​.mar​guerite​lau​rent​.com/​p​r​e​s​s​c​l​i​p​s​/​B​l​a​c​k​I​n​d​i​a​n​s​.​h​t​m​l​#​o​l​d​e​s​t )

Know­ing that Africans where the orig­i­nal peo­ples of the Amer­i­cas, not the “Native” Amer­i­cans as we’ve all been taught, gives the exis­tence of Ayiti — a Black Nation in the Amer­i­cas, new sig­nif­i­cance. For, some­day when the
sci­en­tific evi­dence becomes too well-​known to be hid­den, obfus­cated or con­tested, Haiti may then more cor­rectly be said to be one of the first re-​captured Black Nation in not, the New World, but on planet earth.

Until that knowl­edge rises — until arti­fi­cial bound­aries, nation-​state lines are aban­doned and our human fam­i­lies are united, and the cir­cle becomes unbro­ken (as the link between
Lè Marasa, Lè Mò e Lè Mistè and all the par­ti­cles of the uni­verse that inter­sect and fill up space) — until then, only the most coura­geous of un-​assimilated Haitians and Blacks shall live to extend the con­scious­ness that Haiti is hal­lowed ground, set by our com­mon Black ances­tors — both the autochtones to the Amer­i­cas and the Blacks imported as slaves, who met again their ancient Black ances­tors and then there in Haiti gath­ered together at Bwa Kay­i­man as one to re-​create Ayiti — as a place where Black peo­ples could be free within a sea full of Asian and Euro/U.S. enslaver mindsets.

Until the knowl­edge of the Vodouist rises that we are not bounded by the vis­i­ble world but by the unity and dynamism of a great cos­mic whole of which only cer­tain parts are vis­i­ble, until then only the extra­or­di­nar­ily brave shall deny the rul­ing oli­garchs, their mores, stereo­types, domes­ti­ca­tion of Go(o)d, pol­lu­tion of nature and neo­colo­nial­ism, to recall and extend that upon that sacred moun­tain called Ayiti, soaked in the blood of vision­ary Black war­riors, a sacred trust for Alke­bu­lan and the planet is carved out where “Black” (defined as “infe­rior” by invaders, col­o­niz­ers and white set­tlers) was returned to its indige­nous mean­ing by Black — the lovers of lib­erty, the moral descen­dants of the gen­tle par­ents of humankind — the first trustees of planet earth, of the invis­i­ble and irre­ducible essences (the “Lwas”). This con­cept of Black, mean­ing folks with moral restraints, lovers of lib­erty, the first trustees of planet earth, will also some­day rise from the bit­ter twisted lies it has been set in since Dessalines’ assas­si­na­tion in 1806.

Ayiti was cre­ated by Dessalines and his mainly
Vodouist peo­ples whose way where that of mas­ters and pro­tec­tors of the spirit world, heal­ing nature, and about extend­ing sacred ener­gies and the Ancient Ances­tors’ moral com­passes for human­ity.

His­tory though, seems to be on a hor­rific and vicious tread­mill, repeat­ing itself, com­ing back fully as bro­ken a cir­cle as when waves of humankind trav­eled from Asia and Europe, encoun­ter­ing self in an older Amer­ica, Africa and even Aus­tralia, but not see­ing fam­ily.

Today, his­tory has come full cir­cle with all the old set­tlers’ patholo­gies intact, as we note the unfor­tu­nate and even geno­ci­dal role of Asia and China in Haiti and Africa, be it the role of China in sup­port­ing the cur­rent Arab whiten­ing of Darfu in the Sudan, their sup­port within the UN Secu­rity coun­cil in uphold­ing the cur­rent (MINUSTHA) occu­pa­tion of Haiti; or the role of the UN sol­diers from Asia (
Jor­dani, Pak­istani, Sri Lankan, Chi­nese, Arab-​Lebanese) in the cur­rent geno­cide, forced mis­ce­gena­tion and divid­ing of Hait­ian soci­ety — through rape, slaugh­ter, forced removal/​depop­u­la­tion, abuse, indef­i­nite incar­cer­a­tion of Haiti’s young men, eco­nomic exploita­tion by Haiti’s Arab-​Lebanese elites, defama­tion, mas­sive vac­ci­na­tion and med­ical exper­i­men­ta­tion of the enchained, mar­gin­al­ized and iso­lated poor Hait­ian masses, sham elec­tions run by the inter­na­tional com­mu­nity and their black over­seers, all through the use of white power, priv­i­lege or access to white power/​privilege net­works as their tools. (See also, Remem­ber­ing July 6, 2005 and the UN mas­sacre of inno­cent civil­ians from Site Soley; Dred Wilme speaks; July 6 — Inter­na­tional Day Against the Exter­mi­na­tion of Black Youths; Hait­ian Chil­dren put in Chains by the whites; Haiti’s Rul­ing Oli­garchy; Going Back to Source — Lasous O M Pwale; Jan. 1, 2009 — Another Inde­pen­dence Day Under Occu­pa­tion).


Dessalines ideal #3 — Black ruled Inde­pen­dent Nation

And finally, the great­est of Dessalines’ vision and ideals is that Haiti would be a Black inde­pen­dent nation. Dessalines v. Tou­s­saint (
Black ruled Inde­pen­dent Nation vs. Black ruled French Colony, with Black overseers/​feudal lords gov­ern­ing for the colonist/​imperialist. (Com­pare, Dessalines’ 1805 Inde­pen­dence Con­sti­tu­tion and Toussaint’s 1801 Colo­nial, Catholic and Euro­cen­tric Constitution.See, Haiti’s First Dec­la­ra­tion of Inde­pen­dence.)

Tou­s­saint Lou­ver­ture fought for a Black ruled French colony. This was absolutely unthink­able to the slave-​owners, who kid­napped Tou­s­saint Lou­ver­ture, deported him, tor­tured him and let him die of star­va­tion at a prison fortress in
Fort du Joux, France. Until, that is, Dessalines came along with a greater demand, the big­ger achieve­ment — to make Haiti a Black ruled inde­pen­dent nation. Then, to the Euro/​US tribes, Tou­s­saint Louverture’s aspi­ra­tions for a “Black ruled French colony” didn’t seem so extreme! You’ll notice even today Lou­ver­ture is lauded; Dessalines still vil­i­fied, crim­i­nal­ized and demo­nized. His achieve­ment is still unthink­able to the powers-​that-​be. (See, Haiti’s Act of Inde­pen­dence — Diskou Desalin Pre­mye Jan­vye 1804, Gonaive, Haiti; and Haiti’s First Dec­la­ra­tion of Inde­pen­dence — Nov. 29, 1803 signed by three Black gen­er­als who fought at Vertieres — Dessalines, Christophe and Clerveaux. Boyer/​Petion did not fight on the side of free­dom in any of great Hait­ian bat­tles. They were not at Crete a Pier­rot, nor Vertier­res.)

For cen­turies now these pow­ers, with their black over­seers in Haiti, have press for­ward Tou­s­saint Louverture’s vision of Haiti as a Black-​ruled colony first for the French and now for the US and demo­nized Dessalines’ dream. In fact, Dessalines’ very name was cursed in Haiti (under Petion’s 12 year rule and Boyer’s 25 years) and to just speak his name was to face alien­ation, prison, crim­i­nal­iza­tion and assas­si­na­tion.

But, as all African-Ayisyen’s know, crim­i­nal­iza­tion, impris­on­ment and assas­si­na­tion can­not destroy the inde­struc­tible.

Dessalines’ dream of a “Black ruled inde­pen­dent Haiti” where the
assets of the coun­try are equi­tably divided amongst all Haitians, is what Haitians have been strug­gling to achieve, within a hos­tile Amer­i­can Mediter­ranean, for over 200 years. Dessalines is so revered by Haitians, he is the ONLY one of the rev­o­lu­tion­ary heroes of Haiti, to become a Lwa. He is Haiti’s lib­er­a­tor, found­ing father, first ruler, teacher, guide and spir­i­tual father. (See, Felix Morrisseau-​Leroy poem, “Thank you Father Dessalines”; see Haiti’s National Anthem called Dessaline’s Song or La Desalinyen. Lis­ten to the audio.)

“Haiti’s lib­er­a­tor and found­ing father, Gen­eral
Jean Jacques Dessalines, said, “I Want the Assets of the Coun­try to be Equi­tably Divided” and for that he was assas­si­nated by the mulatto sons of France. That was the first coup d’état, the Hait­ian holo­caust — orga­nized exclu­sion of the masses, mis­ery, poverty and the impunity of the eco­nomic elite — con­tin­ues (with Feb. 29, 2004 mark­ing the 33rd coup d’état). Haiti’s peo­ples con­tinue to resist the return of despots, tyrants and enslavers who wage war on the poor major­ity and Black, contain-​them-​in poverty through neo­colo­nial­ism’ debts, “free trade” and for­eign “invest­ments.” These neo­colo­nial tyrants refuse to allow an equi­table divi­sion of wealth, exclud­ing the major­ity in Haiti from shar­ing in the country’s wealth and assets.” (See also, Et revient la ques­tion. Et ceux dont les pères sont en Afrique, ils n’auront donc rien ; Haiti’s First Dec­la­ra­tion of Inde­pen­dence; Ezili’s counter-​colonial nar­ra­tive on Vodun; Blacks were the orig­i­nal peo­ples in the Amer­i­cas; Kanga Mundele: Our mis­sion to live free or die try­ing, Another Hait­ian Inde­pen­dence Day under occu­pa­tion; The Legacy of Impunity of One Sector-​Who killed Dessalines?; The Legacy of Impunity: The Neo­con­lo­nial­ist incit­ing polit­i­cal insta­bil­ity is the prob­lem. Haiti is under­de­vel­oped in crime, cor­rup­tion, vio­lence, com­pared to other nations; Haiti’s Rul­ing Oli­garchy).

Dessalines’ faith, insis­tence on the nat­ural right of a Black per­son to take up arms in self-​defense, his dream of a Black inde­pen­dent nation and ideas for equal and equi­table eco­nomic redis­tri­b­u­tion is what all the coup d’etats since 1806, includ­ing the lat­est one in Feb­ru­ary of 2004 are try­ing to bury. Yet, no mat­ter the atroc­i­ties suf­fered by the most vil­i­fied peo­ples in this West­ern Hemi­sphere, Dessalines’ dream can­not be cut from them, still lives in Hait­ian veins. Jean Jacques Dessalines is still being born, ris­ing every­day. No mat­ter what you’ve read, Jean Jacques Dessalines, not Tou­s­saint Lou­ver­ture, is Haiti’s found­ing father and the masses’ most revered rev­o­lu­tion­ary hero, a Vodun
Lwa — Vodun God, an irre­ducible essence, inde­struc­tible spirit — and one of the world’s great­est human­i­tar­ian, polit­i­cal strate­gist, and wis­est of world philoso­phers.

The spirit of Jean Jacques Dessalines is the force the Hait­ian masses recalled and called upon after the kid­nap­ping of pres­i­dent Jean Bertrand Aris­tide on Feb­ru­ary 29, 2004. His vision of a Black-​ruled-​independent-​nation is the vision that still ani­mates Haiti’s Black major­ity and their cur­rent strug­gle against UN/​US orches­trated assas­si­na­tions, for­eign occu­pa­tion, end­less debt, depen­dency, dom­i­na­tion, impris­on­ment and crim­i­nal­iza­tion.

Dessalines wakes up every­day in Haiti and in the Hait­ian Dias­pora. He left his descen­dants only one option to slav­ery, racism, colo­nial­ism and impe­ri­al­ism and his three ideals are brought into focus with this one dic­tum: live free or die.

On Octo­ber 17, 2006 (2007, 2008, 2009…), HLLN and the Peo­ple of Haiti will mark the 200th (201, 202, 203…) anniver­sary of the assas­si­na­tion of Haiti’s found­ing father — Gen­eral Jean Jacques Dessalines. Please join us in the last of our four yearly event for the Free­Haiti­Move­ment.

Join HLLN and the grass­roots pro-​democracy move­ment in Haiti in hon­or­ing Haiti’s cen­turies of strug­gle and tri­umphs over tyranny.

Please sup­port this endeavor. Write to
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